This paper analyzes the network End of Line (EoL) performance theoretically and stochastically based on location-aware real-world plant measurements. Computer simulations and laboratory experiments characterize the performance of different network segments (e.g., source, fiber links, coaxial cascades, and tap/drop/in-home network/modem) with an ultimate goal of identifying the network pieces that can potentially dominate the network EoL performance.
This paper and underlying model are the first published analysis of its kind; it considers both current and future factors that determine end-of-line (EoL) performance, DOCSIS 3.1 capacity and/or CNR margin.
The Yin and The Yang of a Move to All Fiber: Transforming HFC to an All Fiber Network While Leveraging the Deployed HFC Assets
This paper provides critical insights into the innovations that enable OBI Free RFoG transmission. He will discuss the intrinsic capabilities of Hybrid PON (HPON) technology, explain how this technology works with existing HFC analog and QAM video and D3.0 and D3.1 signals while also being completely transparent to the myriad of traditional PON standards such as the 10G EPON, 1G EPON, GPON, and XGPON1.
The Edge Resource Center: Leveraging NFV and SDN for High Availability/High Performance Network Functions
This paper covers the concept of an Edge Resource Center, a small-scale virtual machine infrastructure (VMI) that is co-located with the CCAP devices in a cable head-end, and supports high availability and high capacity SDN/NFV resources.
This paper draws on lessons from the past (within the telecommunications space) to predict some of the new technologies that may be considered by Multiple System Operators (MSOs) as they move forward into a service provider world of the future. It is a future that will undoubtedly demand more and more bandwidth to be offered to subscribers over time.
Our latest white paper, Trend. Impact. Solution., investigates three leading bandwidth trends that we uncovered through our extensive global research study. The implications for broadband networks include: consumers want high-quality, untethered experiences in the home, massive increases in video traffic are triggering significant network capacity expansion, consumers want to record and store more content.
This paper details a real-world ARRIS deployment of a high-density CCAP solution in a metropolitan hub that was virtually out of floor space. Using innovative practices and advanced technologies, ARRIS helped a major North American service provider resume service growth and extend the lifespan of this hub by 5+ years.
This paper will review several unique operational challenges that accompany the migration DOCSIS 3.1, including the limited availability of spectrum, the costs of new equipment, and the needs for service expansion. It will also suggest multiple paths on which service providers may choose to embark as they ready their networks while minimizing operational disruption along the way.
This paper presents several best practices that can help service providers improve the utilization of existing and expanded spectrum, expand network capacity with high-density CCAP solutions, support network evolution with advanced optical technologies, and maintain overall plant health to ensure optimal system throughout.
The paper shows that DOCSIS 3.1 provides capacity improvements over DOCSIS 3.0 systems. This article estimates the DOCSIS 3.1 DS and US spectral efficiencies by taking many DOCSIS 3.1 configuration parameters and channel SNR values into consideration. The article also discusses the benefits of different network architectures like N+x, N+0, and digital optics on the system downstream performance. Finally, the paper lists some best operation and maintenance practices to yield well-performing networks that can offer large spectral efficiencies.
“How much bandwidth capacity is needed to keep the subscribers in our service groups happy?” That question has been asked by Multiple System Operators (MSOs) throughout the years of High-Speed Data (HSD) deployments, and traffic engineers have developed many tools to help answer the question. This paper proposes and studies a new traffic engineering algorithm that may be useful as MSOs move forward into the future.
Ethernet PON (EPON) is defined by the IEEE and Gigabit PON (GPON) is defined by the ITU-T. Which one of these technologies may be better suited for the cable industry? This paper focuses on several important areas within the standards defined by the IEEE and the ITU-T, which are relevant as cable service providers consider the two types of PON based networks.
This paper examines the market for IPTV as well as very high-speed Internet services in high-density multi-dwelling units (MDUs). The paper examines the market opportunities, technologies, as well as network and system architectures. The paper also considers operational strategies and business models.
This paper focuses on how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used as part of a remote CCAP architecture to both provision and manage remote devices. It also demonstrates how centralized SDN controller coordination with today’s back office platforms can be used to orchestrate network resources enabling rapid service deployment throughout the network.
The paper takes a deeper look at underlying factors that are driving Broadband growth rates. For recent history, it has been video driving the growth engine. But the video world is changing as the industry starts migrating to 4K Ultra-HD (UHD) using High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoding. We’ll shed some light on how far that can carry growth into the future.
In the past 10-15 years, fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) networks have been deployed in many regions of the world. This paper compares the total end-to-end costs and throughput of the most common types of PONs and demonstrates how the HFC node can be used to enable cable operators to deliver HFC and fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) services simultaneously from the same node.
This paper will define and extensively compare two classes of access architectures that will emerge this decade to impact cable networking. To help an MSO make an informed decision, this paper includes a complete evaluation criteria and side-by-side comparison of six different types of access architecture.
The cable industry has begun a multi-year migration toward a common platform for video and data. While CCAP defines a particular architecture, there are numerous ways to reach that converged endpoint. Drawing from the real-life experience that service providers have had to date, this paper recognizes the diversity and ongoing evolution of the headend and existing cable infrastructures; focusing on three paths to full CCAP.
- Also available in Portuguese: Caminhos de migração para a funcionalidade completa de CCAP
- Also available in Spanish: Rutas de migración para lograr una funcionalidad CCAP completa
As the cable industry moves forward into the future, MSOs will experience profound changes in both their HFC plants and headend equipment. This paper uses basic trend analyses and traffic engineering to create predictions that will show how MSOs will be affected by DOCSIS and other upcoming changes.
Traditional CCAP systems have come under siege from new distributed access architectures such as Remote PHY and Remote CCAP. This paper takes a very detailed look at how traditional CCAP systems might evolve over the next decade to meet the expected growth demands.
In this paper, the authors show a path to a much more efficient use of the RF spectrum, which when used with RFoG technology and features available via the DOCSIS 3.1 standard - and combined with innovative low cost ONU designs using current technology - addresses the anticipated growth rates and bandwidth expansions seamlessly over the next decade and more.
Explore the reasons why 5-85MHz return projects should be considered, discuss potential project scope, and provide insight into achieving successful project outcomes. 5-85MHz return projects are extremely complex and service provider environments vary widely in design and scale. The paper explores high-level business and technical project considerations.
This paper looks at whether operators should plan for an upgrade to 85 MHz. 5-85 MHz reverse and how to deploy with require little network modification. Return path bandwidths beyond 85 MHz significantly add to the expense of the network
A look at the service growth challenge with an analysis tool concept designed to quantify the problem, introduce and describe in detail the architecture and technology evolutions in play to handle projected requirements, and what these can accomplish against this growth.
This paper will focus on the three core areas of the cable access network that are increasingly becoming an integral part for maximizing spectral capacity. The sections that follow will be organized by the identified questions as stated above. In those sections we will provide additional detail to the scope of the problems and suggest solutions.
The RF over Glass (RFoG) technology offers Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) networks with high capacity potential and extends their life deep into the 2020 decade. One of key challenges that are commonly found in RFoG systems is Optical Beat Interference (OBI). This paper is focused on analyzing the RFoG OBI phenomenon and its effect on network performance.
This paper presents a proposal for an extension to the DOCSIS protocol to facilitate the use of a “DOCSIS Multicast Carousel” table. This proposal mitigates the large bandwidth requirements that may be needed to support unicast bursts for fast-channel change assistance and the high processing and message exchange rates (between CMs and CMTSs) that may be required when large numbers of subscribers initiate simultaneous channel change requests.
In the analysis to follow, we will do the accounting – Bandwidth Assets and Bandwidth Liabilities – that give us insight into the future possibilities. Then we build out a long-term service and architecture Capacity Management Timeline.
Advanced Quality of Experience Monitoring Techniques for a New Generation of Traffic Types Carried by DOCSIS
High-resolution QoE Monitoring of the performance levels of different traffic types and different SLA levels could become an essential tool in the MSO toolkit as MSOs navigate the challenging, ever-changing waters of the upcoming decade.
This paper proposes a simple geometrical procedure to derive an expression for the exact probability of symbol error for an M-ary AMPM system in the presence of AWGN. This geometrical approach is based on the simple and familiar concept of calculating the error probability for two-symbol Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) system using the Maximum Likelihood Ratio (MLR)   as the basis for decision.
Ultra High Definition television is many things: more pixels, more color, more contrast, and higher frame rates. Of these parameters, “more pixels” is much more mature commercially and Ultra HD 4k TVs are taking their place in peoples’ homes. In this paper, the author describes techniques and tools that could be used to validate the quality of uncompressed and compressed Ultra HD 4k content to plan bandwidth resources with confidence. The data and analysis included are intended to provide tools and data that could be used to optimize bandwidth allocation and design Ultra HD 4k service offerings.
In this paper, the author presents a streamlined method of setting operational video quality and bandwidth using either subjective or objective testing, using individual golden-eyes or focus groups of any size. The data and analysis included are intended to aid in planning video quality and bandwidth resources across a range of service offerings from OTT through Ultra HD.
This paper examines the unique transcoding requirements of linear broadcast video and compares hardware systems to virtualized server models in supporting these needs.
This paper covers the approaches to HDR and reviews the characteristics of human perception that will impact industry players’ selection of HDR modes and their implementation in the multichannel viewing environment. This author’s goal is to provide basic information that will help manufacturers, producers and distributors answer key questions such as “How bright a screen is bright enough?”; “How bright is too bright?”; “How quickly can a person adapt to changes in brightness, and what does that mean in terms of commercial insertion?”; and “How does the experience of HDR TV change with room lighting?”
The value proposition for cloud-based or network (n)DVR is compelling. To date, however, there has been few full-scale nDVR deployments. The resulting scarcity of data makes it difficult to model such a system. This ARRIS white paper turns to usage statistics from an in-home, multi-tuner/multi-room DVR deployment. Drawn from more than 1,000 households over an eight-day period, they are relevant to service providers who are closely considering an nDVR initiative.
This paper discusses two emerging trends in video processing delivery, namely, migration of various video processing functions to the network cloud to leverage advances in virtualization and dynamic packaging techniques for adaptive bitrate (ABR) delivery of video. This paper further discusses the advantages, key requirements, and challenges in implementing various processing functions in software and hosting them in a virtualized environment.
4K resolution is a subset of Ultra High Definition (UHD) television, which includes higher frame rates, enhanced & more precise color, and better use of the luminance range of modern flat-panel TV displays. Each of those UHD enhancements can create a rich visual reality for consumers. This paper explores the phases described from a human visual acuity perspective and explains the complex relationship between 4K, HEVC, and monetization opportunities.
The cornerstone for an MSO’s IP Video migration is the ability of delivering fully managed Linear TV services to any screen. To make IP Video scale successfully, Multicast-assisted Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) has risen to be the solution of choice. This paper analyzes live viewing behavior across more than 100,000 set-top boxes for intervals over a month long. The paper reviews potentially significant issues around channel change behavior, quantifies the impact of spikes in channel changes that occurs several times per hour, and details the significant bandwidth capacity benefits of Multicast-assisted ABR.
This paper will focus on optimizing storage for linear ad insertion servers while evaluating factors such as spot lifetimes, network bandwidth, spot removal algorithm and storage capacity.
As service providers increasingly seek to deliver their video offerings to IP connected devices, one of the greatest challenges they face is how to deliver high-quality content in the right format, securely- without overtaxing the access network. This paper explores the applications for home- and network-based transcoding, and previews some of the innovations that are emerging to help providers transcode their content more efficiently and effectively in the multiscreen world.
Video experiences are evolving into more complex systems that support delivery of linear and on-demand content on multiple portable devices, capable of local and network DVR, and even supporting targeted content recommendation and advertisement placement. This paper provides an overview of Big Data Technologies, and it gives examples an architectural overview of how these technologies can be used in an operator’s eco-system.
This paper presents extended and recent usage statistics from in-home multi-room/multi-tuner DVR deployments with an emphasis on characterizing subscriber behavior. These statistics are then extrapolated to formulate sizing assumptions for a typical cloud-based DVR deployment, including ingest, storage, and streaming capacities.
This executive summary paper presents a co-operative transcoding technique that can substantially reduce the processing requirement of generating multiple representations as well as produce a uniform quality of user experience across the multiple representations.
This paper provides an in-depth overview of two emerging technologies, dynamic profile selection and cooperative transcoding, along with experimental data demonstrating their potential for substantially reducing content processing requirements for multiscreen video delivery.
The biggest challenge to transitioning to a managed IP video service is the bandwidth. The authors compare the efficiencies of switched multicast, and unicast (native for ABR delivery) approaches, present the significant benefits of multicast even at small groups of subscribers, and conclude by introducing a Multicast assisted ABR architecture that offers the benefits of multicast as well as building upon a single infrastructure to enable an IP video service to all devices in and outside the home.
This study looks at the enhanced user interface that Buckeye has recently implemented to analyze the channel change behavior of subscribers plus VOD views and DVR usage between stand-alone STBs and the ARRIS WHS.
This paper looks at how service providers can use adaptive delivery technology to deploy unified video processing workflows, which they can use to manage large-scale video delivery over unmanaged networks.
This paper compares in detail the SABR system is to traditional unmanaged ABR delivery as well as a system with enhanced CMTS QoS. With SABR, operators can significantly increase their IP Video capacity while gracefully handling congestion and providing an improved user experience.
Redefining the Connected Home
This paper presents set-top box sensitivity testing results, and well as results from other characterization tests. The paper covers results from testing of the existing taps to explain potential neighborhood effects of expanded upstream deployment that could pose operational headaches if not addressed proactively.
Consumers expect reliable Wi-Fi virtually wherever they go, and sporting events are no exception. But the size and architecture of today’s arena poses several challenges for Wi-Fi. Through advanced technologies and techniques, ARRIS is helping to overcome the obstacles that threaten reliable Wi-Fi deployment in the arena.
Today’s technology savvy consumers want a high-quality Wi-Fi experience at home. And when their home is an apartment, dormitory or condo – they often expect it to be included in the fees they already pay. To help property owners and service providers bring high-performance Wi-Fi to these multi-dwelling units cost effectively, ARRIS offers a range of innovative tools, tactics and technologies.
Forward thinking service providers, municipalities and venue owners have begun to deploy Wi-Fi in the places people congregate most. But deploying Wi-Fi in large, open spaces such as shopping malls, parks and airports can be difficult. Leveraging its vast experience and innovative technology solutions, ARRIS is helping bring Wi-Fi to these locations while minimizing construction costs, maximizing performance and preserving the surrounding aesthetics.
The even more connected home is quickly becoming a reality. Yet, we have seen the slow progress to mass adoption of home automation, home control, home security, and other home connectivity solutions. The technical solutions outlined in this paper involve several recommendations for standard technologies involved with communications and device ecosystems.
Here, CSI Magazine’s Philip Hunter explores how cellular convergence and Wi-Fi roaming are coming together to improve Wi-Fi service and deliver a better customer experience - indoors and out.
In this article, CSI Magazine and ARRIS discuss how video prioritization, meshing and multi-user MIMO can help improve video quality over Wi-Fi today, while enabling exciting new service opportunities in the near future.
For service providers, delivering video content to the tablet, laptop and smart phone brings with it several new challenges and opportunities. These wide-ranging dynamics include gauging subscriber interest, negotiating content agreements, overcoming deployment hurdles, devising monetization strategies and determining the best transcoding architecture, to name a few. In an exclusive study for ARRIS, Heavy Reading surveyed more than 70 pay TV executives to identify the top trends in multiscreen video, including the current state of deployment and service providers’ future plans for this captivating new service.
As Wi-Fi continues its march from a network of convenience to a “must have” utility, more attention must be paid to how these networks are deployed. This means considering several dynamics early in the installation process that can effect Wi-Fi performance and reach. Additionally, there are several installation practices that can impact wireless service, including access point placement, the use of wireless coverage tools, & encryption settings. In this paper, ARRIS details several factors that should be considered in the installation phase of Wi-Fi networks to ensure a high quality experience.
As consumers increasingly rely on Wi-Fi, their expectations for quality are on the rise. To ensure that service providers aren’t burdened by the high expense of Wi-Fi service calls, ARRIS is helping to proactively avoid issues through innovative technologies and best-in-class practices for installation, operations and management. This brief outlines this real-life challenge and how ARRIS has presented the right solution to overcome it.
Delivering Television-Quality Video Over Wi-Fi: A Guide to Making the Right Wireless Equipment Decisions
To achieve great video quality over WIFI available bandwidth must not only be maximized, but also sensibly allocated. After reading this paper you will have a firm grasp of the techniques used to achieve these joint goals and what to look for in a wireless AP best suited for home video delivery.
This paper discusses integrating current OSS platforms with Wi-Fi service management from the technician install to long term Wi-Fi service management. These Wi-Fi management concepts are shown with integration to the OpenDaylight SDN controller supporting co-ordination of Wi-Fi provisioning, client roaming and authentication, QoS and self-care portal for the end customer.
This paper reviews the technologies and directions being considered to ensure that the Wi-Fi network has both the ability and quality of service to provide a reliable solution. This paper provides a primer on what needs to be done and how a service provider can be prepared for the future.
Navigating the Home Wi-Fi Experience Part 2: The Importance of Air Time Allocation in Wi-Fi Quality of Service
As service providers strive to own the subscriber’s home experience by deploying ever more sophisticated Wireless Gateways and multi-service offerings; wireless technology plays a key enabling role in the way consumers use the various services. Through a series of real-life tests, this paper shows how these competing services can impact the home user’s wireless experience, in both single user and multi user environments. This paper provides evidence that the critical resource on the wireless network is not raw bandwidth management but rather comprehensive management of the time allotted on the air interface.
Navigating the Home Wi-Fi Experience, Part 1: Real-world Data on the Growing Congestion of Home Wi-Fi and Potential Responses
This paper, the first in a series focused on Wi-Fi networks in the home, will reviews types of data carried across the home, the impact of multiple device usage in the home and why it is important to manage Wi-Fi devices, data on what is actually happening in the home network, and solutions to help manage the connected home and improving the consumer experience.
The continued encroachment of competitive service offerings has driven subscriber satisfaction into the arena of completive differentiation. This paper looks at the theoretical improvements that could be realized with a system that begins with system process documentation and process redesign to achieve outage preventive management, leading to customer experience improvements.
IP video introduces new challenges when it comes to QoE monitoring. In this paper, the authors present the differences between QoE and QoS, and between QoE and video quality, as well as compare different methodologies for video quality and QoE monitoring. The authors conclude with a review of alternatives for embedding QoE probes in the end-to-end IP video architecture and its ability to collect true and effective QoE information.
This paper examines the benefits of adding UHDTV capabilities, investigates the differences between UHDTV and 3DTV from both the deployment and adoption perspectives, and provides practical steps to help guide service providers as they create phased UHDTV rollout plans.
This paper looks at whether people will find the UHDTV experience a compelling improvement over HDTV and the impact of the evolution to full UHDTV with advances in bandwidth compression.
Cloud-Based DVR Prepares for Prime Time: An Executive Summary to Deployment Techniques and Technologies
This paper focuses on the techniques and technologies that may prove useful in helping service providers overcome key infrastructure and economic issues as they deploy cloud-based DVR services.
This paper models key cost drivers and demonstrates the economic impact of offering cloud based DVR services, addressing the issues of capital costs and the trade-offs between storage, transport and transcoding.
This paper looks at the multiple overlapping home network technologies in the Gateway and how the Gateway can take an active role in determining how to best utilize the networks for optimum performance and increased power savings.
This article examines how principles of vision science can be used to predict the bit rates and video quality needed to make video on devices, ranging from smartphones to ultra high definition televisions, a success.
In this paper, we describe a method to expand the role of DOCSIS Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) from physical and packet- level monitoring probes to aiding in service monitoring. We describe the considerations in the choice of active probes, the network, and service impact considerations from performing these tests.