White Papers

Transforming Networks

The Spectral Efficiency of DOCSIS® 3.1 Systems

The paper shows that DOCSIS 3.1 provides capacity improvements over DOCSIS 3.0 systems. This article estimates the DOCSIS 3.1 DS and US spectral efficiencies by taking many DOCSIS 3.1 configuration parameters and channel SNR values into consideration. The article also discusses the benefits of different network architectures like N+x, N+0, and digital optics on the system downstream performance. Finally, the paper lists some best operation and maintenance practices to yield well-performing networks that can offer large spectral efficiencies.

Simulating the Impact of QoE on Per-Service Group HSD Bandwidth Capacity Requirements

“How much bandwidth capacity is needed to keep the subscribers in our service groups happy?” That question has been asked by Multiple System Operators (MSOs) throughout the years of High-Speed Data (HSD) deployments, and traffic engineers have developed many tools to help answer the question. This paper proposes and studies a new traffic engineering algorithm that may be useful as MSOs move forward into the future.

Comparing IEEE 10G-EPON and ITU XG-PON Technologies and Beyond for MSOs

Ethernet PON (EPON) is defined by the IEEE and Gigabit PON (GPON) is defined by the ITU-T. Which one of these technologies may be better suited for the cable industry? This paper focuses on several important areas within the standards defined by the IEEE and the ITU-T, which are relevant as cable service providers consider the two types of PON based networks.

Next-Generation Networks for Multiple Dwelling Units (MDUs)

This paper examines the market for IPTV as well as very high-speed Internet services in high-density multi-dwelling units (MDUs). The paper examines the market opportunities, technologies, as well as network and system architectures. The paper also considers operational strategies and business models.

Managing Remote CCAP Devices with SDN: Centralized Operations for FIB Management

This paper focuses on how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used as part of a remote CCAP architecture to both provision and manage remote devices. It also demonstrates how centralized SDN controller coordination with today’s back office platforms can be used to orchestrate network resources enabling rapid service deployment throughout the network.

Is Nielsen Ready to Retire? Latest Developments in Bandwidth Capacity Planning

The paper takes a deeper look at underlying factors that are driving Broadband growth rates. For recent history, it has been video driving the growth engine. But the video world is changing as the industry starts migrating to 4K Ultra-HD (UHD) using High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoding. We’ll shed some light on how far that can carry growth into the future.

Powering PON with HFC, a Hybrid for a New Generation

In the past 10-15 years, fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) networks have been deployed in many regions of the world. This paper compares the total end-to-end costs and throughput of the most common types of PONs and demonstrates how the HFC node can be used to enable cable operators to deliver HFC and fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) services simultaneously from the same node.

A Side-by-Side Comparison of Centralized vs. Distributed Access Architectures

This paper will define and extensively compare two classes of access architectures that will emerge this decade to impact cable networking. To help an MSO make an informed decision, this paper includes a complete evaluation criteria and side-by-side comparison of six different types of access architecture.

Migration Paths to CCAP

The cable industry has begun a multi-year migration toward a common platform for video and data. While CCAP defines a particular architecture, there are numerous ways to reach that converged endpoint. Drawing from the real-life experience that service providers have had to date, this paper recognizes the diversity and ongoing evolution of the headend and existing cable infrastructures;  focusing on three paths to full CCAP.

Predictions on the Evolution of Access Networks to the Year 2030 & Beyond

As the cable industry moves forward into the future, MSOs will experience profound changes in both their HFC plants and headend equipment. This paper uses basic trend analyses and traffic engineering to create predictions that will show how MSOs will be affected by DOCSIS and other upcoming changes.

Scaling Traditional CCAP to Meet the Capacity Needs of the Next Decade

Traditional CCAP systems have come under siege from new distributed access architectures such as Remote PHY and Remote CCAP. This paper takes a very detailed look at how traditional CCAP systems might evolve over the next decade to meet the expected growth demands.

Partnership for Extended Capacity: DOCSIS 3.1 with RFoG

In this paper, the authors show a path to a much more efficient use of the RF spectrum, which when used with RFoG technology and features available via the DOCSIS 3.1 standard - and combined with innovative low cost ONU designs using current technology - addresses the anticipated growth rates and bandwidth expansions seamlessly over the next decade and more.

Making Rational HFC Upstream Migration Decisions in the Midst of Chaos

This paper looks at whether operators should plan for an upgrade to 85 MHz. 5-85 MHz reverse and how to deploy with require little network modification. Return path bandwidths beyond 85 MHz significantly add to the expense of the network

Breathing New Lifespan into HFC: Tools, Techniques, and Optimizations

A look at the service growth challenge with an analysis tool concept designed to quantify the problem, introduce and describe in detail the architecture and technology evolutions in play to handle projected requirements, and what these can accomplish against this growth.

Examining the Future Evolution of the Access Network

This paper will focus on the three core areas of the cable access network that are increasingly becoming an integral part for maximizing spectral capacity. The sections that follow will be organized by the identified questions as stated above. In those sections we will provide additional detail to the scope of the problems and suggest solutions.

Beat It! Handling OBI in RFoG Systems

The RF over Glass (RFoG) technology offers Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) networks with high capacity potential and extends their life deep into the 2020 decade. One of key challenges that are commonly found in RFoG systems is Optical Beat Interference (OBI). This paper is focused on analyzing the RFoG OBI phenomenon and its effect on network performance.

An Improvement Proposal for the Timing and Scaling of DOCSIS IP Multicast Video Services

This paper presents a proposal for an extension to the DOCSIS protocol to facilitate the use of a “DOCSIS Multicast Carousel” table. This proposal mitigates the large bandwidth requirements that may be needed to support unicast bursts for fast-channel change assistance and the high processing and message exchange rates (between CMs and CMTSs) that may be required when large numbers of subscribers initiate simultaneous channel change requests.

Accounting for Techies: Taking it to the Ultra

In the analysis to follow, we will do the accounting – Bandwidth Assets and Bandwidth Liabilities – that give us insight into the future possibilities. Then we build out a long-term service and architecture Capacity Management Timeline.

Advanced Quality of Experience Monitoring Techniques for a New Generation of Traffic Types Carried by DOCSIS

High-resolution QoE Monitoring of the performance levels of different traffic types and different SLA levels could become an essential tool in the MSO toolkit as MSOs navigate the challenging, ever-changing waters of the upcoming decade.

A Simple Approach for Deriving the Symbol Error Rate of Non-Rectangular 22K+1 M-ARY AMPM Modulation

This paper proposes a simple geometrical procedure to derive an expression for the exact probability of symbol error for an M-ary AMPM system in the presence of AWGN. This geometrical approach is based on the simple and familiar concept of calculating the error probability for two-symbol Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) system using the Maximum Likelihood Ratio (MLR) [1] [8] as the basis for decision.

Empowering Content

ABR Delivery Architectures and Virtualization

This paper discusses two emerging trends in video processing delivery, namely, migration of various video processing functions to the network cloud to leverage advances in virtualization and dynamic packaging techniques for adaptive bitrate (ABR) delivery of video. This paper further discusses the advantages, key requirements, and challenges in implementing various processing functions in software and hosting them in a virtualized environment.

Ultra HD—Connecting the Present to the Future

4K resolution is a subset of Ultra High Definition (UHD) television, which includes higher frame rates, enhanced & more precise color, and better use of the luminance range of modern flat-panel TV displays. Each of those UHD enhancements can create a rich visual reality for consumers. This paper explores the phases described from a human visual acuity perspective and explains the complex relationship between 4K, HEVC, and monetization opportunities.

Challenges Delivering Multiscreen Linear TV Services: Multicast-Assisted ABR to the Rescue

The cornerstone for an MSO’s IP Video migration is the ability of delivering fully managed Linear TV services to any screen. To make IP Video scale successfully, Multicast-assisted Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) has risen to be the solution of choice. This paper analyzes live viewing behavior across more than 100,000 set-top boxes for intervals over a month long. The paper reviews potentially significant issues around channel change behavior, quantifies the impact of spikes in channel changes that occurs several times per hour, and details the significant bandwidth capacity benefits of Multicast-assisted ABR.

Ad Insertion - Storage Requirements and Caching

This paper will focus on optimizing storage for linear ad insertion servers while evaluating factors such as spot lifetimes, network bandwidth, spot removal algorithm and storage capacity.

Transcoding Choices for a Multiscreen World

As service providers increasingly seek to deliver their video offerings to IP connected devices, one of the greatest challenges they face is how to deliver high-quality content in the right format, securely- without overtaxing the access network. This paper explores the applications for home- and network-based transcoding, and previews some of the innovations that are emerging to help providers transcode their content more efficiently and effectively in the multiscreen world.

Big Data - Web Originated Technology Meets Television

Video experiences are evolving into more complex systems that support delivery of linear and on-demand content on multiple portable devices, capable of local and network DVR, and even supporting targeted content recommendation and advertisement placement. This paper provides an overview of Big Data Technologies, and it gives examples an architectural overview of how these technologies can be used in an operator’s eco-system.

Cloud-Based DVR and Multiscreen Support Strategies – Optimizing Storage and On-Demand Transcoding

This paper presents extended and recent usage statistics from in-home multi-room/multi-tuner DVR deployments with an emphasis on characterizing subscriber behavior. These statistics are then extrapolated to formulate sizing assumptions for a typical cloud-based DVR deployment, including ingest, storage, and streaming capacities.

Dynamic Profile Selection & Cooperative Transcoding: An Efficient Future for the Multiscreen World

This executive summary paper presents a co-operative transcoding technique that can substantially reduce the processing requirement of generating multiple representations as well as produce a uniform quality of user experience across the multiple representations.

Efficient Content Processing for Adaptive Video Delivery

This paper provides an in-depth overview of two emerging technologies, dynamic profile selection and cooperative transcoding, along with experimental data demonstrating their potential for substantially reducing content processing requirements for multiscreen video delivery.

Multicast as a Mandatory Stepping Stone for an IP Video Service to the Big Screen

The biggest challenge to transitioning to a managed IP video service is the bandwidth. The authors compare the efficiencies of switched multicast, and unicast (native for ABR delivery) approaches, present the significant benefits of multicast even at small groups of subscribers, and conclude by introducing a Multicast assisted ABR architecture that offers the benefits of multicast as well as building upon a single infrastructure to enable an IP video service to all devices in and outside the home.

Advanced Menu Usage and System Architecture: Impacts on User Behavior

This study looks at the enhanced user interface that Buckeye has recently implemented to analyze the channel change behavior of subscribers plus VOD views and DVR usage between stand-alone STBs and the ARRIS WHS.

Improving Adaptive Video Delivery through Active Management

This paper looks at how service providers can use adaptive delivery technology to deploy unified video processing workflows, which they can use to manage large-scale video delivery over unmanaged networks.

Smart ABR: The Future of Managed IP Video Services

This paper compares in detail the SABR system is to traditional unmanaged ABR delivery as well as a system with enhanced CMTS QoS. With SABR, operators can significantly increase their IP Video capacity while gracefully handling congestion and providing an improved user experience.

Redefining the Connected Home

The Future of Wi-Fi Service Management—Hybrid Controller Solutions

This paper discusses integrating current OSS platforms with Wi-Fi service management from the technician install to long term Wi-Fi service management. These Wi-Fi management concepts are shown with integration to the OpenDaylight SDN controller supporting co-ordination of Wi-Fi provisioning, client roaming and authentication, QoS and self-care portal for the end customer.

The Quest to Send 4K Video Over Wi-Fi in the Home

This paper reviews the technologies and directions being considered to ensure that the Wi-Fi network has both the ability and quality of service to provide a reliable solution. This paper provides a primer on what needs to be done and how a service provider can be prepared for the future.

Navigating the Home Wi-Fi Experience Part 2: The Importance of Air Time Allocation in Wi-Fi Quality of Service

As service providers strive to own the subscriber’s home experience by deploying ever more sophisticated Wireless Gateways and multi-service offerings; wireless technology plays a key enabling role in the way consumers use the various services. Through a series of real-life tests, this paper shows how these competing services can impact the home user’s wireless experience, in both single user and multi user environments. This paper provides evidence that the critical resource on the wireless network is not raw bandwidth management but rather comprehensive management of the time allotted on the air interface.

Navigating the Home Wi-Fi Experience, Part 1: Real-world Data on the Growing Congestion of Home Wi-Fi and Potential Responses

This paper, the first in a series focused on Wi-Fi networks in the home, will reviews types of data carried across the home, the impact of multiple device usage in the home and why it is important to manage Wi-Fi devices, data on what is actually happening in the home network, and solutions to help manage the connected home and improving the consumer experience.

A Case Study on Customer Experience Improvements from a System-wide approach

The continued encroachment of competitive service offerings has driven subscriber satisfaction into the arena of completive differentiation. This paper looks at the theoretical improvements that could be realized with a system that begins with system process documentation and process redesign to achieve outage preventive management, leading to customer experience improvements.

QoE Monitoring of IP Video Service

IP video introduces new challenges when it comes to QoE monitoring. In this paper, the authors present the differences between QoE and QoS, and between QoE and video quality, as well as compare different methodologies for video quality and QoE monitoring. The authors conclude with a review of alternatives for embedding QoE probes in the end-to-end IP video architecture and its ability to collect true and effective QoE information.

UHDTV: Avoiding the Pitfalls of 3DTV

This paper examines the benefits of adding UHDTV capabilities, investigates the differences between UHDTV and 3DTV from both the deployment and adoption perspectives, and provides practical steps to help guide service providers as they create phased UHDTV rollout plans.

The Future of UHDTV: A Brief on Visual Acuity and the Impact on Bandwidth Requirements

This paper looks at whether people will find the UHDTV experience a compelling improvement over HDTV and the impact of the evolution to full UHDTV with advances in bandwidth compression.

Cloud-Based DVR Prepares for Prime Time: An Executive Summary to Deployment Techniques and Technologies

This paper focuses on the techniques and technologies that may prove useful in helping service providers overcome key infrastructure and economic issues as they deploy cloud-based DVR services.

The Economic Drivers for Cloud-Based DVR Services

This paper models key cost drivers and demonstrates the economic impact of offering cloud based DVR services, addressing the issues of capital costs and the trade-offs between storage, transport and transcoding.

Improving Home Networking Satisfaction with a Unified Home Gateway

This paper looks at the multiple overlapping home network technologies in the Gateway and how the Gateway can take an active role in determining how to best utilize the networks for optimum performance and increased power savings.

Quantitative Evaluation of Human Visual Perception for Multiple Screens and Multiple CODECs

This article examines how principles of vision science can be used to predict the bit rates and video quality needed to make video on devices, ranging from smartphones to ultra high definition televisions, a success.

The Shift from Element Monitoring to Packet Monitoring to Service Monitoring

In this paper, we describe a method to expand the role of DOCSIS Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) from physical and packet- level monitoring probes to aiding in service monitoring. We describe the considerations in the choice of active probes, the network, and service impact considerations from performing these tests